Thursday, August 27, 2020
Mesozoic Era - the Geologic Time Scale Following both the Precambrian Time and the Paleozoic Era on the Geologic Time Scale came the Mesozoic Era. The Mesozoic Era is some of the time called the age of the dinosaurs since dinosaurs were the prevailing creatures for a significant part of the period. The Permian Extinction After the Permian Extinction cleared out over 95% of sea staying species and 70% of land species, the new Mesozoic Era started around 250 million years prior. The principal time of the time was known as the Triassic Period. The main large change was found in the kinds of plants that overwhelmed the land. A large portion of the types of plants that endure the Permian Extinction were plants that had encased seeds, similar to gymnosperms. The Paleozoic Era Since the vast majority of the life in the seas got wiped out toward the finish of the Paleozoic Era, numerous new species developed as predominant. New kinds of corals showed up, alongside water-staying reptiles. Not very many kinds of fish stayed after the mass termination, yet those that survived thrived. Ashore, the creatures of land and water and little reptiles like turtles were predominant during the early Triassic Period. Before the finish of the period, little dinosaurs started to develop. The Jurassic Period After the finish of the Triassic Period, the Jurassic Period started. The vast majority of the marine life in the Jurassic Period remained equivalent to it was in the Triassic Period. There were a couple of more types of fish that showed up, and close to the furthest limit of the period, crocodiles appeared. The most decent variety happened in microscopic fish species. Land Animals Land creatures during the Jurassic Period had greater decent variety. Dinosaurs got a lot greater and the herbivorous dinosaurs governed the Earth. Toward the finish of the Jurassic Period, feathered creatures advanced from dinosaurs. The atmosphere changed to progressively tropical climate with a great deal of downpour and moistness during the Jurassic Period. This permitted land plants to experience an enormous development. Actually, wildernesses secured a great part of the land with numerous conifers in higher heights. The Mesozoic Era The remainder of the periods inside the Mesozoic Era was known as the Cretaceous Period. The Cretaceous Period saw the ascent of blooming plants ashore. They were helped along by the recently framed honey bee species and the warm and tropical atmosphere. Conifers were still extremely bottomless all through the Cretaceous Period also. The Cretaceous PeriodÃ¢ With respect to marine creatures during the Cretaceous Period, sharks and beams got typical. The echinoderms that endure the Permian Extinction, similar to starfish, likewise got plentiful during the Cretaceous Period. Ashore, the principal little warm blooded animals began to show up during the Cretaceous Period. Marsupials advanced first, and afterward different warm blooded creatures. More winged creatures developed, and reptiles got greater. Dinosaurs were as yet prevailing, and predatory dinosaurs were progressively common. Another Mass Extinction Toward the finish of the Cretaceous Period, and the finish of the Mesozoic Era came another mass annihilation. This eradication is by and large called the K-T Extinction. The K originates from the German condensing for Cretaceous, and the T is from the following time frame on the Geologic Time Scale - the Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era. This annihilation took out all dinosaurs, with the exception of feathered creatures, and numerous different types of life on Earth. There are various thoughts with respect to why this mass termination happened. Most researchers concur it was a type of disastrous occasion that caused this annihilation. Different speculations incorporate gigantic volcanic ejections that shot residue into the air and made less daylight arrive at the outside of the Earth causing photosynthetic life forms like plants and the individuals who relied upon them, to cease to exist gradually. Some others accept a meteor hit making the residue hinder the daylight. Since plants and creatures that ate plants ceased to exist, this caused top predators like flesh eating dinosaurs to likewise die.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The Income Break The salary imbalance is only the distinction in the pay rates of the diverse class of individuals or potentially employments. In The Rise of the Creative Class, Richard Florida investigates compensation the whole way across the U. S so as to thoroughly analyze compensation. He does a breakdown of the 3 classes that he discusses prior in the book and from that point think about the wages. In one outline that is shown he shows that Connecticut has the most elevated salary yet then he has another diagram that shows in any case. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t accept this could be stopped on the grounds that individuals of various occupations feel as though they merit various degrees of pay, which I do concur to.In late research I found that numerous individuals fall outside of the Creative Class in light of their training levels or on account of the presentation they are eager to do at a vocation. So the individuals who are off guard are the working poor since they are for the most part in a field where they need to do work. Since our general public is at a condition of changing every single day, I trust it is fairly difficult to remain in this field of inventiveness, except if you are eager to change vocations or extra to your difficulties in the work field.Economists are investigating the things that are changing in our reality and the greatest thing is innovation. Since innovation is changing at a consistent rate, it makes it hard for somebody who can't be in the Creative Class. New things are advancing ordinary and a few employments won't be required later on. People could work a similar activity, however the man may show signs of improvement pay in light of his sexual orientation. This carries me to the Five Faces of Oppression where they talk about the division in sexual orientation and how men show signs of improvement than women.Women are predominant in the work field for minorities today. In any case, contrasted with men who are working the compensation i s still extremely low. In past parts of The Rise of the Creative Class Florida shows a chart that show the compensation of a lady contrasted with one of a man. Additionally the chart demonstrated compensation of minority contrasted with the dominant part. The distinctions stunned me simply because I thought as a general public we were getting equivalent and reasonable, however the chart and other research demonstrated something else.
Friday, August 21, 2020
2 Effective Windows Applications For Hindi Typing Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!2 Effective Windows Applications For Hindi TypingUpdated On 23/04/2017Author : shariqTopic : Desktop AppsShort URL : http://bit.ly/2pQgeOm CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlogIt is little bit difficult to learn Hindi typing when compared to English. Besides there are many successful applications to learn English typing such as Typing Master, etc. But finding a typing tutor for Hindi is difficult. Here I have two good tools which will help anyone to type in Hindi easily.#1 Aasaan Hindi Typing TutAasaan Hindi is an amazing free Windows tool to learn Hindi typing. This free software works like English typing tutors as it has step by step practice lessons to learn Hindi typing. It shows Hindi letters and words on computer screen and learners have to type these words on keyboard. It also tells about the positions of fingers on keyboard.Brief Features of Aasaan HindiStep by s tep learning chaptersTyping games for entertaining and comprehensive learningYou can also type in EnglishUsers can learn in both English and HindiDownload Page for Aasaan Hindi#2 HindiPadIt is a different type of software to type in Hindi. The special thing to notice regarding this applications is that it is very easy to type in Hindi using this software and it is specially programmed to type in Hindi without learning Hindi typing. Hindi letters are set on keyboard in such a way that Hindi typing can be done as English typing using HindiPad.READWondershare Video Converter Ultimate ReviewBrief Features of HindiPadNo need to learn Hindi typingUse your English typing keys to type in HindiMicrosoft Word formatting optionsDifferent stylish Hindi fontsDownload Page for Hindi PadNow do let us know if you know about any other tool which is helpful for Hindi typing.
Monday, May 25, 2020
An azeotrope is a mixture of liquids that maintains its composition and boiling point during distillation. It is also known as an azeotropic mixture or constant boiling point mixture. Azeotropy occurs when a mixture is boiled to produce a vapor that has the same composition as the liquid. The term is derived by combining the prefix a, meaning no, and the Greek words for boiling and turning. The word was first used in a publication by English chemists John Wade (1864Ã¢â¬â1912) and Richard William Merriman in 1911. In contrast, mixtures of liquids that do not form an azeotrope under any conditions are called zeotropic. Types of Azeotropes Azeotropes may be categorized according to their number of constituents, miscibility, or boiling points: Number of Constituents: If an azeotrope consists of two liquids, it is known as a binary azeotrope. An azeotrope consisting of three liquids is a ternary azeotrope. There are also azeotropes made of more than three constituents.Heterogeneous or Homogeneous: Homogeneous azeotropes consist of liquids that are miscible. They form a solution. Heterogeneous azeotropes are incompletely miscible and form two liquid phases.Positive or Negative: A positive azeotrope or minimum-boiling azeotrope forms when the boiling point of the mixture is lower than that of any of its constituents. A negative azeotrope or maximum-boiling azeotrope forms when the boiling point of the mixture is higher than that of any of its constituents. Examples Boiling a 95% ethanol solution in water will produce a vapor that is 95% ethanol. Distillation cannot be used to obtain higher percentages of ethanol. Alcohol and water are miscible, so any quantity of ethanol can be mixed with any quantity to prepare a homogeneous solution that behaves like an azeotrope. Chloroform and water, on the other hand, form a heteroazeotrope. A mixture of these two liquids will separate, forming a top layer consisting mostly of water with a small amount of dissolved chloroform and a bottom layer consisting mostly of chloroform with a small amount of dissolved water. If the two layers are boiled together, the liquid will boil at a lower temperature than either the boiling point of water or chloroform. The resulting vapor will consist of 97% chloroform and 3% water, regardless of the ratio in the liquids. Condensing this vapor will result in layers that exhibit a fixed composition. The top layer of the condensate will account for 4.4% of the volume, while the bottom layer will account for 95.6% of the mixture. Azeotrope Separation Since fractional distillation cannot be used to separate components of an azeotrope, other methods must be employed: Pressure swing distillation applies pressure changes to change the composition of a mixture to enrich the distillate with the desired component.Another technique involves the addition of an entrainer, a substance that alters the volatility of one of the azeotrope components. In some cases, the entrainer reacts with a component to form a nonvolatile compound. Distillation using an entrainer is called azeotropic distillation.Pervaporation involves separating components using a membrane that is more permeable to one constituent than the other. Vapor permeation is a related technique, using a membrane more permeable to the vapor phase of one component than another. Source Wade, John, and Richard William Merriman. CIV.Ã¢â¬âInfluence of Water on the Boiling Point of Ethyl Alcohol at Pressures above and Below the Atmospheric Pressure. Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions 99.0 (1911): 997Ã¢â¬â1011. Print.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
There are a number of varying opinions concerning whether the selfie culture is lame or legit and this means it is the responsibility of the people who take part in this practice to mold the future of this kind of photography. To avoid being a selfie addict, a person should focus on people as well as things that exist around them in their day-to-day lives as well as spending time on activities that involve family members and friends like travelling and watching films. Taking selfies is not an activity that can be done throughout the day and when in a place that is inappropriate for such a practice, the person that has the urge to take the selfie should try their best to avoid taking this kind of photos. Generally, selfies are not empowering sources of pride and nor are they narcissistic exercises by silly teenagers but they are a logical response that has been allowed by technology to an upbringing that makes them think that what matters is the opinions of other people. The selfies stands for an age in photography where images have become more disposable in meaningless. We will write a custom essay sample on Selfie as a New Trend of Photography or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now What are the moments that are being captured by these photographs? What are the emotions in the pictures? All the photographs seem to be taken in the same angles, poses and pout making one photo no different from the other. When the photographic medium first came to being in the 1840s, it received praise for its democracy and versatility, but there were concerned that this medium also encouraged some level of self-obsession. Most of the criticism that is directed at the selfie is that it is supports this kind of narcissistic society and this fills people lives with numerous images of themselves even though photography has always done this. Photography has accorded value to self-image as well as the ability for people to develop images of themselves. This attribute of taking photos enabled everyone to take part and the capacity for everyone to create and see them made photography an influential and universal phenomenon.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Dishonesty of Honest People: A theory of Self-Concept maintenance. Main idea Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · People think of themselves as honest. Yes, in reality dishonesty pays quite generously (give examples) The paper demonstrates that their convenience people become dishonest enough to profit but also behave honestly enough to maintain their self-concept. Why are People Dishonest? Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Origins of theory date from Adam Smith/Thomas Hobbes using Homo Economicus as a base reference. Aka Ã¢â¬Å"Rational ManÃ¢â¬ who acts consciously and deliberately to trade off benefits and costs of dishonest acts. Within a dishonest act there is normally a balance of tradeoffs: 1. the amount that is to be gained 2. LikelihoodÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Or individuals who came from a society that was organized on Abrahamic religious norms. Would the ten commandments have been effective on Hindus? Or Zoroastrians? Comment [MS4]: Perhaps it had more to do with their knowledge or lack of, in regards to the amount of money available to them as a reward Control group 1(50 cents): No possibility to cheat: as expected Control group 2(2 dollars) No possibility to cheat: as expected Recycle group 1(50 cents):Possibility to cheat: They cheated relative to the ctrl ( but only 13.5% out of 20 max). Cheating was slightly more common in the 50cent condition Recycle group 2 (2 dollars) Possibility to cheat: They cheated relative to those in ctrl (but only 13.5% out of 20 max) Recycle+ Honor code(signed agreement) group1(50 cents): indistinguishable from ctrl (but significantly different from the recycle groups) Recycle+Honor code(signed agreement) group2(2 dollars): indistinguishable from ctrl (but significantly different from recycle groups) Ã¯â · Experinment 3: Tested whether a rise categorization malleability, increases level of dishonesty. Whether dishonesty would be motivated by external rewards of money or via intermediary medium(token). Control group 1(50 cents): No possibility to cheat: as expected Comment [MS5]: No support for H1. Easier to claim more in this instance as dishonesty is less salient due to reduced reward level? (They have their ownShow MoreRelatedThe Dishonesty of Honest People (Paper Summary)1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDishonesty of Honest People: A theory of Self-Concept maintenance. Main idea Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · People think of themselves as honest. Yes, in reality dishonesty pays quite generously (give examples) The paper demonstrates that their convenience people become dishonest enough to profit but also behave honestly enough to maintain their self-concept. Why are People Dishonest? Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Origins of theory date from Adam Smith/Thomas Hobbes using Homo Economicus as a base reference. Aka Ã¢â¬Å"RationalRead MoreAcademic Ethics : Academic Integrity1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdefinition, academic integrity stands for the ethical policy or the moral code of the realm of academics. Upholding academic integrity is the responsibility of the students, researchers or academicians. Any person related to academics has to be honest in his or her approach, and that should reflect in the field of research and academic publishing. The person should also be committed to maintain the paramount academic standards in his or her work. Moreover, these should be vehement avoidance ofRead MoreAcademic Misconduct Essay1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe internet plagiarism has been increasing overtime. We really need to think about the consequences for that. According, to Griffith University (Australia) there are many different kinds of plagiarism. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Presenting a submitting another studentÃ¢â¬â¢s paper as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Paraphrasing an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s words without proper acknowledgment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quoting directly from a source (book, journal, and article) so as to imply that the words are oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. Also, plagiarism is a fact of life that is in academic writing;Read MorePlagiarism And Why It Is Considered Wrong1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesany research and write a paper. The common assumption on the whole that all of the content and notions of an essay belong to the author, unless the sentence lies within in quotation marks or the summary is cited (Check 21). If the writer utilizes words or concepts from a different source without clear citation of the content, the grader ought to give the writer acclaim for language and notions which in fact belong to a whole different source. The person reading the paper has the responsibility toRead MoreEssay on Judicial Review980 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindependent judiciary. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The article is based on report on research conducted, which shows the study of comparing perceptions of the importance of 18 traits for effective low-level leaders and high-level leaders. Participants were 84 full-time white-collar employees from Australia and 244 full-time white-collar employees from China. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed cultural differences in terms of which traits are regarded as important for effective leadership. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s recent entry nto World Trade Organization (WTO) has already resulted in an increase in trade agreements between China and many developed nations (e. g. Australia, US). The increase in trade between China and developed nations will inevitably lead to increased interactions between personnel from China and the developed nations. These personnel, especially expatriate managers, need to be aware of cultural differences and similarities in leadership prototypes in offer to perform effectively. Leadership is a major component of the social fabric of many organization (Lord et al. 1986), and prototypical perceptions of effective leadership represent an important topic of investigation for research (Hackman and Lawler, 1971; Hunt, 1991; Petterson, 1985). Perceptions of leadership are what followers act on and, therefore such perceptions can impact the outcomes of the leadership process (Bennett, 1977; Gerstner and Day, 1994). Leader acceptance and effectiveness may depend on leader attributes and behaviors being congruent with the endorsed implicit leadership theories of followers (Cronshaw and Lord, 1987; House et al. , 1999). Furthermore, certain characteristics of a culture may render specific leadership characteristics and styles acceptable and effective (House et al. , 2004). For example, a leader who adopts an autocratic style may be more accepted and effective in a high power distance culture (e. g. China) than in a low power distance culture (e. g. Australia) Although studies have examined cultural differences in leadership traits, there are important issues that remain to be addressed, especially with regard to comparisons between China and Australia. The largest study thus ar, project GLOBE, involved data from approximately 17,000 managers from 951 organizations in 62 countries around the world. According to the research, cognitive prototypes appear to be a central component of implicit leadership theories (Lord et al. , 1982) and provide an abstract standard, or expectation, against which actual leaders can be compared. Cognitive prototypes thus influence perceptions of leadership as well as reactions to leadership, because interpretations of and reactions to leadership depend on the type of prototype that is evoked (Lord et al. , 1984). According to Lord and MaherÃ¢â¬â¢s (1991) Ã¢â¬Ërecognition modelÃ¢â¬â¢, an important determinant of being perceived as an effective leader is the congruence between the followerÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-existing notions of the ideal characteristics of an effective leader and his or her perceptions of the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s actual characteristics. The better the match between ideal and actual characteristics, the more likely it is that the leader will receive credit for favorable work outcomes and therefore attain the social power vital for effective leadership (Cronshaw and Lord, 1987; Hollander and Julian, 1969; Shaw, 1990). Although there is evidence that some leadership traits and practices are endorsed universally, there is also evidence that the enactment of these traits varies across cultures (Den Hartog et al. , 1999; House et al. , 2004). For instance, although leaders in Australia and New Zealand are expected to be egalitarian, Australian leaders are expected to be more socially oriented and less task-oriented than their New Zealand counterparts. Furthermore, people pursue goals because goal attainment implies that they possess those qualities that are socially desirable. Consequently, leaders might favor certain leadership practices because practices might be perceived as indicator of certain socially desirable characteristics. For instance, in cultures that value decisiveness and hierarchy, leaders might prefer to be autocratic, and subordinates might prefer to be loyal and obedient. Conversely, in cultures that value egalitarianism, leaders might prefer to be consultative, and subordinates might prefer to be challenging and outspoken. There is evidence of cross cultural differences and similarities in the leadership prototypically of various traits, indicating that some traits may be endorsed universally as prototypical of effective leaders, whereas the endorsement of other traits may be culturally contingent: Gerstner and Day (1994) found the leadership prototypically of traits to be related strongly to three of HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s (1980) cultural dimensions. Cross cultural similarities in leadership prototypes were also found by Gerstner and Day (1994). Specifically, the trait Ã¢â¬Ëgoal-orientedÃ¢â¬â¢ was the second most important prototypical trait for effective business leaders. The findings of Project GLOBE (House et al. , 2004) suggest that some traits (e. g. visionary, intelligent, trustworthy, and decisive) are endorsed universally as positive attributes for a leader to possess, whereas the endorsement of other traits is more culturally contingent (e. g. compassionate, domineering, orderly, and risk taker). Helgstrand and Stuhlmacher (1999) found that American and Danish students saw feminine leaders as most collegial, and feminine-individualistic leaders as most effective. Brodbeck et al. (2000) found that leadership prototypes differed systematically with the general cultural values held by managers and employees in 10 different regions of Europe. Some traits (e. g. integrity, performance-oriented, team integrator, and visionary), however, were seen as facilitating outstanding leadership in all of the regions (e. g. integrity and visionary), except for France. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural tradition is founded on Confucian values, which still provide the basis for the norms of Chinese interpersonal behavior. According to Hofstede and Bond (1988), one of the key principles of Confucianism is that social stability is dependent on unequal relationships. Confucianism emphasizes hierarchy and contends that each individual should be conscious of his or her position in the social system. Although Chinese culture may be changing, with wealth increasingly becoming the paramount value for Chinese people, some key elements of the culture (e. g. Respect for authority, collectivism) remain unchanged. In short, there may be sound reasons to expect the Chinese to endorse a different set of leadership traits to that of other cultures. China would score low on individualism because of the high value the Chinese place on the family/referent group and the socialistic influence of Communism. Research has supported the claim in that collectivistic values have been shown to be dominant in China (e. g. Dorfman and Howell, 1988; Ralston et al. , 1996). It can also be argued that China would score high on power distance because of the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy. Along these lines, beliefs of Chinese managers have been found to be more autocratic countries, especially regarding sharing information with subordinates and participative decision-making (Redding and Casey, 1986). In contrast to the Chinese, Australians tend to prefer managerial practices that are egalitarian and consultative (Clark and McCabe, 1970; Robbins et al. , 1994), which is consistent with their preference for low power distance. Australian leadership is distinct because of its emphasis on egalitarianism and individualism, and Australian leaders are expected to maintain the perception of equality with their followers. Australians also tend to play down inequalities and are not fearful or in awe of their bosses, or other authority figures. For example, Australian student have been shown to prefer an assertive style (e. g. They address the lecturer by first name, maintain direct eye contact, and speak loudly) when complaining to a lecturer about their grades. Individualism-collectivism has been shown to impact managerial perceptions attitudes and behaviors. Hong Kong Chinese manages who migrated to Australia reported that they had to adapt to a smaller power distance between supervisors and subordinates, as well as to a more direct and participatory communication style. Australian middle managers perceived participative leadership to be more important for outstanding leadership than did middle managers from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. There are additional reasons to expect differences between Australians and Chinese in terms of the importance placed on different leadership traits. First, compared to Chinese, Australians are less concerned with uncertainty avoidance and thus may place less emphasis on formalization and standardization. Accordingly, they may expect more innovative or less orderly behaviors from their leaders. Second, in individualistic/low power distance countries (e. g. Australia), managers typically create job-based work designs founded on individual initiative and responsibility. In contrast, in collectivistic/high power distance countries (e. . China) managers prefer team-based work organizations with strong control by supervisors, in which team-level quality measures and tools are used to manage quality. Third, there is evidence that Chinese managers do not view communication as especially important for effective leadership. It is apparent that the roles and responsibilities of leaders vary with hierarchical level. Specifically, high-level leadership is more strategic in nature (e. g. developing and promoting a vision, thinking about organizational structure and policies, allocating resources, public relations). Conversely, low-level leadership is constrained by the decisions made by high-level leadership and is primarily concerned with issues that are more immediate, less complex, and which necessitate closer involvement with followers, such as staffing and scheduling work, as well as structuring and monitoring the work activities of followers. Put another way, high-level leadership is concerned with ends more than means, whereas low-level leadership is concerned with means more than ends. Not surprisingly then, the behavior of high-level leaders and low-level leaders has been shown to differ both qualitatively, and quantitatively. Given that leaders at different hierarchical levels perform different functions, followers are likely to expect different things from them. There is evidence that traits associated with transformational leadership (e. g. Courageous, diplomatic, innovative, inspirational, and visionary) are seen as more important for high-level leaders than for low-level leaders, while traits associated with daily operations and interacting with followers (e. g. Concern for subordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢ interests, orderly, participative, and team builder) are seen as more important for low-level leaders than for high-level leaders. In conclude, the Australians rated traits that attenuate leaderÃ¢â¬âfollower power differences (e. g. friendly and respectful) higher than did the Chinese. Consistent with previous research, traits that were regarded as more important for high-level leaders (e. g. inspirational and visionary) correspond with aspects of charismatic/visionary leadership. The findings indicate that the perceived importance of specific leadership traits is determined partly by culturally endorsed interpersonal norms and partly by the requirements of the leadership role.