Monday, May 25, 2020

Azeotrope Definition and Examples

An azeotrope is a mixture of liquids that maintains its composition and boiling point during distillation. It is also known as an azeotropic mixture or constant boiling point mixture. Azeotropy occurs when a mixture is boiled to produce a vapor that has the same composition as the liquid. The term is derived by combining the prefix a, meaning no, and the Greek words for boiling and turning. The word was first used in a publication by English chemists John Wade (1864–1912) and Richard William Merriman in 1911. In contrast, mixtures of liquids that do not form an azeotrope under any conditions are called zeotropic. Types of Azeotropes Azeotropes may be categorized according to their number of constituents, miscibility, or boiling points: Number of Constituents: If an azeotrope consists of two liquids, it is known as a binary azeotrope. An azeotrope consisting of three liquids is a ternary azeotrope. There are also azeotropes made of more than three constituents.Heterogeneous or Homogeneous: Homogeneous azeotropes consist of liquids that are miscible. They form a solution. Heterogeneous azeotropes are incompletely miscible and form two liquid phases.Positive or Negative: A positive azeotrope or minimum-boiling azeotrope forms when the boiling point of the mixture is lower than that of any of its constituents. A negative azeotrope or maximum-boiling azeotrope forms when the boiling point of the mixture is higher than that of any of its constituents. Examples Boiling a 95% ethanol solution in water will produce a vapor that is 95% ethanol. Distillation cannot be used to obtain higher percentages of ethanol. Alcohol and water are miscible, so any quantity of ethanol can be mixed with any quantity to prepare a homogeneous solution that behaves like an azeotrope. Chloroform and water, on the other hand, form a heteroazeotrope. A mixture of these two liquids will separate, forming a top layer consisting mostly of water with a small amount of dissolved chloroform and a bottom layer consisting mostly of chloroform with a small amount of dissolved water. If the two layers are boiled together, the liquid will boil at a lower temperature than either the boiling point of water or chloroform. The resulting vapor will consist of 97% chloroform and 3% water, regardless of the ratio in the liquids. Condensing this vapor will result in layers that exhibit a fixed composition. The top layer of the condensate will account for 4.4% of the volume, while the bottom layer will account for 95.6% of the mixture. Azeotrope Separation Since fractional distillation cannot be used to separate components of an azeotrope, other methods must be employed: Pressure swing distillation applies pressure changes to change the composition of a mixture to enrich the distillate with the desired component.Another technique involves the addition of an entrainer, a substance that alters the volatility of one of the azeotrope components. In some cases, the entrainer reacts with a component to form a nonvolatile compound. Distillation using an entrainer is called azeotropic distillation.Pervaporation involves separating components using a membrane that is more permeable to one constituent than the other. Vapor permeation is a related technique, using a membrane more permeable to the vapor phase of one component than another. Source Wade, John, and Richard William Merriman. CIV.—Influence of Water on the Boiling Point of Ethyl Alcohol at Pressures above and Below the Atmospheric Pressure. Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions 99.0 (1911): 997–1011. Print.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Selfie as a New Trend of Photography Free Essay Example, 1500 words

There are a number of varying opinions concerning whether the selfie culture is lame or legit and this means it is the responsibility of the people who take part in this practice to mold the future of this kind of photography. To avoid being a selfie addict, a person should focus on people as well as things that exist around them in their day-to-day lives as well as spending time on activities that involve family members and friends like travelling and watching films. Taking selfies is not an activity that can be done throughout the day and when in a place that is inappropriate for such a practice, the person that has the urge to take the selfie should try their best to avoid taking this kind of photos. Generally, selfies are not empowering sources of pride and nor are they narcissistic exercises by silly teenagers but they are a logical response that has been allowed by technology to an upbringing that makes them think that what matters is the opinions of other people. The selfies stands for an age in photography where images have become more disposable in meaningless. We will write a custom essay sample on Selfie as a New Trend of Photography or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now What are the moments that are being captured by these photographs? What are the emotions in the pictures? All the photographs seem to be taken in the same angles, poses and pout making one photo no different from the other. When the photographic medium first came to being in the 1840s, it received praise for its democracy and versatility, but there were concerned that this medium also encouraged some level of self-obsession. Most of the criticism that is directed at the selfie is that it is supports this kind of narcissistic society and this fills people lives with numerous images of themselves even though photography has always done this. Photography has accorded value to self-image as well as the ability for people to develop images of themselves. This attribute of taking photos enabled everyone to take part and the capacity for everyone to create and see them made photography an influential and universal phenomenon.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Dishonesty of Honest People (Paper Summary) - 1589 Words

Dishonesty of Honest People: A theory of Self-Concept maintenance. Main idea ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · People think of themselves as honest. Yes, in reality dishonesty pays quite generously (give examples) The paper demonstrates that their convenience people become dishonest enough to profit but also behave honestly enough to maintain their self-concept. Why are People Dishonest? ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · Origins of theory date from Adam Smith/Thomas Hobbes using Homo Economicus as a base reference. Aka â€Å"Rational Man† who acts consciously and deliberately to trade off benefits and costs of dishonest acts. Within a dishonest act there is normally a balance of tradeoffs: 1. the amount that is to be gained 2. Likelihood†¦show more content†¦Or individuals who came from a society that was organized on Abrahamic religious norms. Would the ten commandments have been effective on Hindus? Or Zoroastrians? Comment [MS4]: Perhaps it had more to do with their knowledge or lack of, in regards to the amount of money available to them as a reward Control group 1(50 cents): No possibility to cheat: as expected Control group 2(2 dollars) No possibility to cheat: as expected Recycle group 1(50 cents):Possibility to cheat: They cheated relative to the ctrl ( but only 13.5% out of 20 max). Cheating was slightly more common in the 50cent condition Recycle group 2 (2 dollars) Possibility to cheat: They cheated relative to those in ctrl (but only 13.5% out of 20 max) Recycle+ Honor code(signed agreement) group1(50 cents): indistinguishable from ctrl (but significantly different from the recycle groups) Recycle+Honor code(signed agreement) group2(2 dollars): indistinguishable from ctrl (but significantly different from recycle groups) ï‚ · Experinment 3: Tested whether a rise categorization malleability, increases level of dishonesty. Whether dishonesty would be motivated by external rewards of money or via intermediary medium(token). Control group 1(50 cents): No possibility to cheat: as expected Comment [MS5]: No support for H1. Easier to claim more in this instance as dishonesty is less salient due to reduced reward level? (They have their ownShow MoreRelatedThe Dishonesty of Honest People (Paper Summary)1597 Words   |  7 PagesDishonesty of Honest People: A theory of Self-Concept maintenance. Main idea ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · People think of themselves as honest. Yes, in reality dishonesty pays quite generously (give examples) The paper demonstrates that their convenience people become dishonest enough to profit but also behave honestly enough to maintain their self-concept. Why are People Dishonest? ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · Origins of theory date from Adam Smith/Thomas Hobbes using Homo Economicus as a base reference. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cross Culture Comparison of Leadership Traits free essay sample

The article is based on report on research conducted, which shows the study of comparing perceptions of the importance of 18 traits for effective low-level leaders and high-level leaders. Participants were 84 full-time white-collar employees from Australia and 244 full-time white-collar employees from China. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed cultural differences in terms of which traits are regarded as important for effective leadership. China’s recent entry nto World Trade Organization (WTO) has already resulted in an increase in trade agreements between China and many developed nations (e. g. Australia, US). The increase in trade between China and developed nations will inevitably lead to increased interactions between personnel from China and the developed nations. These personnel, especially expatriate managers, need to be aware of cultural differences and similarities in leadership prototypes in offer to perform effectively. Leadership is a major component of the social fabric of many organization (Lord et al. 1986), and prototypical perceptions of effective leadership represent an important topic of investigation for research (Hackman and Lawler, 1971; Hunt, 1991; Petterson, 1985). Perceptions of leadership are what followers act on and, therefore such perceptions can impact the outcomes of the leadership process (Bennett, 1977; Gerstner and Day, 1994). Leader acceptance and effectiveness may depend on leader attributes and behaviors being congruent with the endorsed implicit leadership theories of followers (Cronshaw and Lord, 1987; House et al. , 1999). Furthermore, certain characteristics of a culture may render specific leadership characteristics and styles acceptable and effective (House et al. , 2004). For example, a leader who adopts an autocratic style may be more accepted and effective in a high power distance culture (e. g. China) than in a low power distance culture (e. g. Australia) Although studies have examined cultural differences in leadership traits, there are important issues that remain to be addressed, especially with regard to comparisons between China and Australia. The largest study thus ar, project GLOBE, involved data from approximately 17,000 managers from 951 organizations in 62 countries around the world. According to the research, cognitive prototypes appear to be a central component of implicit leadership theories (Lord et al. , 1982) and provide an abstract standard, or expectation, against which actual leaders can be compared. Cognitive prototypes thus influence perceptions of leadership as well as reactions to leadership, because interpretations of and reactions to leadership depend on the type of prototype that is evoked (Lord et al. , 1984). According to Lord and Maher’s (1991) ‘recognition model’, an important determinant of being perceived as an effective leader is the congruence between the follower’s pre-existing notions of the ideal characteristics of an effective leader and his or her perceptions of the leader’s actual characteristics. The better the match between ideal and actual characteristics, the more likely it is that the leader will receive credit for favorable work outcomes and therefore attain the social power vital for effective leadership (Cronshaw and Lord, 1987; Hollander and Julian, 1969; Shaw, 1990). Although there is evidence that some leadership traits and practices are endorsed universally, there is also evidence that the enactment of these traits varies across cultures (Den Hartog et al. , 1999; House et al. , 2004). For instance, although leaders in Australia and New Zealand are expected to be egalitarian, Australian leaders are expected to be more socially oriented and less task-oriented than their New Zealand counterparts. Furthermore, people pursue goals because goal attainment implies that they possess those qualities that are socially desirable. Consequently, leaders might favor certain leadership practices because practices might be perceived as indicator of certain socially desirable characteristics. For instance, in cultures that value decisiveness and hierarchy, leaders might prefer to be autocratic, and subordinates might prefer to be loyal and obedient. Conversely, in cultures that value egalitarianism, leaders might prefer to be consultative, and subordinates might prefer to be challenging and outspoken. There is evidence of cross cultural differences and similarities in the leadership prototypically of various traits, indicating that some traits may be endorsed universally as prototypical of effective leaders, whereas the endorsement of other traits may be culturally contingent: Gerstner and Day (1994) found the leadership prototypically of traits to be related strongly to three of Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimensions. Cross cultural similarities in leadership prototypes were also found by Gerstner and Day (1994). Specifically, the trait ‘goal-oriented’ was the second most important prototypical trait for effective business leaders. The findings of Project GLOBE (House et al. , 2004) suggest that some traits (e. g. visionary, intelligent, trustworthy, and decisive) are endorsed universally as positive attributes for a leader to possess, whereas the endorsement of other traits is more culturally contingent (e. g. compassionate, domineering, orderly, and risk taker). Helgstrand and Stuhlmacher (1999) found that American and Danish students saw feminine leaders as most collegial, and feminine-individualistic leaders as most effective. Brodbeck et al. (2000) found that leadership prototypes differed systematically with the general cultural values held by managers and employees in 10 different regions of Europe. Some traits (e. g. integrity, performance-oriented, team integrator, and visionary), however, were seen as facilitating outstanding leadership in all of the regions (e. g. integrity and visionary), except for France. China’s cultural tradition is founded on Confucian values, which still provide the basis for the norms of Chinese interpersonal behavior. According to Hofstede and Bond (1988), one of the key principles of Confucianism is that social stability is dependent on unequal relationships. Confucianism emphasizes hierarchy and contends that each individual should be conscious of his or her position in the social system. Although Chinese culture may be changing, with wealth increasingly becoming the paramount value for Chinese people, some key elements of the culture (e. g. Respect for authority, collectivism) remain unchanged. In short, there may be sound reasons to expect the Chinese to endorse a different set of leadership traits to that of other cultures. China would score low on individualism because of the high value the Chinese place on the family/referent group and the socialistic influence of Communism. Research has supported the claim in that collectivistic values have been shown to be dominant in China (e. g. Dorfman and Howell, 1988; Ralston et al. , 1996). It can also be argued that China would score high on power distance because of the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy. Along these lines, beliefs of Chinese managers have been found to be more autocratic countries, especially regarding sharing information with subordinates and participative decision-making (Redding and Casey, 1986). In contrast to the Chinese, Australians tend to prefer managerial practices that are egalitarian and consultative (Clark and McCabe, 1970; Robbins et al. , 1994), which is consistent with their preference for low power distance. Australian leadership is distinct because of its emphasis on egalitarianism and individualism, and Australian leaders are expected to maintain the perception of equality with their followers. Australians also tend to play down inequalities and are not fearful or in awe of their bosses, or other authority figures. For example, Australian student have been shown to prefer an assertive style (e. g. They address the lecturer by first name, maintain direct eye contact, and speak loudly) when complaining to a lecturer about their grades. Individualism-collectivism has been shown to impact managerial perceptions attitudes and behaviors. Hong Kong Chinese manages who migrated to Australia reported that they had to adapt to a smaller power distance between supervisors and subordinates, as well as to a more direct and participatory communication style. Australian middle managers perceived participative leadership to be more important for outstanding leadership than did middle managers from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. There are additional reasons to expect differences between Australians and Chinese in terms of the importance placed on different leadership traits. First, compared to Chinese, Australians are less concerned with uncertainty avoidance and thus may place less emphasis on formalization and standardization. Accordingly, they may expect more innovative or less orderly behaviors from their leaders. Second, in individualistic/low power distance countries (e. g. Australia), managers typically create job-based work designs founded on individual initiative and responsibility. In contrast, in collectivistic/high power distance countries (e. . China) managers prefer team-based work organizations with strong control by supervisors, in which team-level quality measures and tools are used to manage quality. Third, there is evidence that Chinese managers do not view communication as especially important for effective leadership. It is apparent that the roles and responsibilities of leaders vary with hierarchical level. Specifically, high-level leadership is more strategic in nature (e. g. developing and promoting a vision, thinking about organizational structure and policies, allocating resources, public relations). Conversely, low-level leadership is constrained by the decisions made by high-level leadership and is primarily concerned with issues that are more immediate, less complex, and which necessitate closer involvement with followers, such as staffing and scheduling work, as well as structuring and monitoring the work activities of followers. Put another way, high-level leadership is concerned with ends more than means, whereas low-level leadership is concerned with means more than ends. Not surprisingly then, the behavior of high-level leaders and low-level leaders has been shown to differ both qualitatively, and quantitatively. Given that leaders at different hierarchical levels perform different functions, followers are likely to expect different things from them. There is evidence that traits associated with transformational leadership (e. g. Courageous, diplomatic, innovative, inspirational, and visionary) are seen as more important for high-level leaders than for low-level leaders, while traits associated with daily operations and interacting with followers (e. g. Concern for subordinates’ interests, orderly, participative, and team builder) are seen as more important for low-level leaders than for high-level leaders. In conclude, the Australians rated traits that attenuate leader–follower power differences (e. g. friendly and respectful) higher than did the Chinese. Consistent with previous research, traits that were regarded as more important for high-level leaders (e. g. inspirational and visionary) correspond with aspects of charismatic/visionary leadership. The findings indicate that the perceived importance of specific leadership traits is determined partly by culturally endorsed interpersonal norms and partly by the requirements of the leadership role.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Breakdancing Essays - Street Dance, English-language Films, Films

Breakdancing Breakdancing Breakdancing a form of African American dance that emerged from the hip hop culture of the South Bronx, New York, during the mid-1970s. Drawing upon several African American dance forms, break dancing coalesced in the 1970s and reached its peak in popularity during the 1980s. Breakdancing developed out of the Bronx, New York, disco scene. When disco DJs changed records, dancers would fill the resulting musical breaks, or "breakbeats," with movements that emphasized the rupture in rhythmic continuity. These highly acrobatic interludes developed into a new genre that mixed Afrodiasporic dance styles, reflecting the influence of the lindy-hop, the Charleston, the cakewalk, and the jitterbug as well as the Afro-Brazilian martial-arts dance Capoeira and the antics of Kung Fu movies. Breakdancing included "breaking" (flipping, spinning, pivoting on the head and hands), "up-rock" (a mock-combat style, often directed against an opponent), and "webbo" (fast footwork between other dance moves). When breakdancing spread to Los Angeles, California, dancers added the "electric boogie," automaton-like dance moves that incorporated pantomime. In the beginning, breakdancers adopted a confrontational attitude, as "crews" met each other in fake rumbles that often turned into real fights. Even peaceful displays resembled the competitive toasting of Bronx musicians in concurrently developing rap music. Like other facets of the hip hop movement, breakdancing met with commercial success and public notoriety in the early 1980s. Paralleling Soho's embrace of Bronx graffiti art, Manhattan dance clubs welcomed breakdancers to their floors. And like rap, breakdancing appeared in a number of popular films, including Wild Style (1982), Breakin' (1984), and Beat Street (1984), which featured the Rock Steady Crew, breakdancing's most renowned posse. This publicity, which deemphasized breakdancing's confrontational aspect, turned the dance into a national sensation among white as well as black youths; suburban schoolchildren donned hip hop fashions, and some white teenagers signed up for breakdancing lessons. Widespread media attention diminished breakdancing's power as a unique voice of self-affirmation for inner-city youth. Its influence, however, set the trajectory of subsequent dance trends. Black performers such as Michael Jackson, MC Hammer, and Missy Elliot draw from breakdance styles that never stop evolving. Even such breakdancing originals as Richard "Crazy Legs" Coln of the Rock Steady Crew, continue to innovate and perform.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Immigrants Essays - Californios, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Racism

Immigrants Essays - Californios, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Racism Immigrants Have you ever seen anything in your life that just seemed to good to be true? Have you ever saw something at a restaurant menu that looked like "a double dose of all that" but it turned out to be "toe up from the floe up". The point that I am trying to reach is that western expansion was not good for America. The reason why I say this is because a lot of people got caught up in the western myth. The western myth is a belief that all will profit, all would be equal, and all will be free. Hays Jackson states that "Chinese immigrants started arriving in the United States around the late 1840s and early 1850s." In his article Paper Sons, he states "for many Chinese, however the United States was the Mountain of Gold". Basically Chinese immigrants came looking for a better life but what they found themselves taken advantage of, discrimination, hatred, and abuse. One of the ways that they legally got discriminated was the Exclusion Acts. The Exclusion Acts were laws saying those of Chinese descent were not welcome in to the United States unless you were educated a merchant or a son of a US citizen. Mariano Vallejo is just one of the many people who got caught into the Western Myth. To make a long story short, Vallejo was this man who owned a lot of land and property. After the gold rush he had nothing. How did he lose it all? The same way the Native Americans did. Land hungry settlers came upon his lands like roaches come to a dirty kitchen and Mariano Vallejo was raid-less. Mr. Vallejo life represents the life of many Mexican and Mexican Americans. Even though Mexican and Mexican Americans accepted the settlers, their new country treated them like foreigners. By the end of the 1800s the Mexican and Mexican American found themselves a minority with little or no power and occupying the lowest rungs of the economic ladder. The author Scott Minerbook says that "Blacks viewed the west as a land of promise both economically and racially even though most came to the west as slaves". In the story The Forgotten Pioneers the Author talks about how Black towns were suppose to be set up. Minorbook says " Among the most prominent all black towns was Nicodemus Kan., established in1877 by a White speculator and his Black partner. As was often the case during the settling of west , Black pioneers were promised fertile fields abundant water shady trees and plenty of game by the alluring avartisement . Instead arriving Blacks found that the best farmlands surrounding the city had already been taken by whites. There were no trees and the game was scarce." In other words Whites said "Hmmm we already have the nice land for ourselves lets give the not so nice area to the Blacks. We can tell them the land is just like ours and make a profit!"Also the Article says "Nicodemus lost a competition for a railroad statio n that would have tied it into the larger regional economy and went into an economical decline. But the Legacy of racism played a role; Jim Crow laws barred Blacks from voting and hampers Black laborers. Four Black people were lynched in a town in Oklahoma in 1910" Just another example of the western myth. All was not free all was not rich and all was not equal. Western expansion was not good for America. On the good side you had more land more money and who doesn't want that. One the bad side you had racism, discrimination hatred and distrust. But to get this land and wealth, was it necessary to steal it from Native, Mexican, Native Americans and Mexican Americans? Was it necessary to make laws to keep other people from getting their share of the pie?

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Technological Transformations of Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words - 1

Technological Transformations of Society - Essay Example As the above definition explains, technology is about applying technical means to life. In today’s developing world, technology is all around us. Its presence can be felt in almost all fields of life. Social Networking is no exception. In fact the term social networking itself is a product of innovative technology. Social networking means to socialize via a network which is mostly done online, using some supporting platform. Most social networking websites enable the creation of a personal profile, where members of the network or ‘online family’ can feed their basic information and photographs etc. the members can then connect with other members on the website via platforms associated with these profiles. According to one definition, social networks are: â€Å"Web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site.† 2 Face book is one of today’s leading social network websites. According to one survey, people spend three times more time on face book than they do on Google (Ostrow, 2009). The main features of face book include: Face book profile, friend finder, photo and video sharing, news feed, personal wall and face book games. Face book originated as ‘Face mash’ back in 2003 by a Harvard student named Mark Zuckerberg. The privacy policy of ‘Face mash’, which later became as ‘face book’ was criticized and the creator of this program faced many legal suites in this regard (Web hosting report, 2009). Zuckerberg mainly faced criticism against open exchange of data viewable by practically any body on the internet. The privacy policy of face book has been undergoing a lot of changes since its creation. ‘Face mash’, originally meant for Harvard